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Bromo

INTRODUCTION 
Bromo Tengger Semeru National Parks is a technical field authority unit under Directorate General of Forest Protection and Nature Conservation -Department of Forestry declared by Decision Letter of Ministry of Forestry number 1049/Kpts-II/1992, dated November 12, 1992.
Before declared as a national Park, mountainous highland of Bromo Tengger Semeru is a forest area with many function like Strict Nature Reserve, Recreation Forest, Protection Forest and Production Forest.
Declaration of Bromo Tengger Semeru area as a National Park is bassed on some considerations, i.e : rare and endemic flora, habitat of migrant wildlife, unique ecosystem, active volcano, scenery of nature, cultural and traditional lives of local people, as a catchment area for waterresources around the area, etc.

GENERAL DESCRIPTION 
The area of Bromo Tengger Semeru National Park covers 50,273.30 hectares of mountainous highland and vertile valley, between 1,000 – 3,676 M above sea level. Beside the area is dominated by mountainous, there are also 4 lakes inside, namely : Ranu Pani (4 Ha), Ranu Regulo (0,75 Ha), Ranu Kumbolo (14 Ha), and Ranu Darungan (0,50 Ha). Geografically the area lies between 7?54? – 8?13? South Latitude and 112?51? – 113?4? East Longitude on the globe. Administratively is situated in four regencies, i.e : Probolinggo, Pasuruan, Malang and Lumajang – East Java Province.
According to Schmidt and Ferguson there are four climate types, i.e : A, B, C, and D. The monsoon showers fall from late October through the end of April when the dry season commences. The temperature ranges from 3 degrees to 20 degrees average with frequent intense heat waves that cause bush – fire in the June – August period and stifling humidity of 80 % can be felt during the wet season. The activities of Bromo Tengger Semeru sometimes have great effects in the freak weather. Winds with the velocity of up to 60 km can become intolerably cold.

LEGEND 
When the Majapahit Kingdom was at decline, the Hindu-Budhist sect moved east ward and reached the vicinity of the volcanoes. The consort of King Brawijaya gave birth to dougther, Roro Anteng, who was later married to Joko Seger of a Brahmin caste. When they became rightful rulers, they gave themselves the title”PURBAWASESO MANGKURAT ING TENGGER”.
The word TENGGER deriving from the coining of the last syllable of their name this TENG-GER, from the word ‘ Tenggering Budi Luhur” which symbolises High Morality and Piece. The Tenggeresse people until now live in the area around mountainous of Tengger i.e : Ngadisari, Wonokitri, Ngadas, Argosari, ranu Pani, Ledok Ombo and Wonokerso.

THE SEA OF SAND AND Mt. BROMO 
The sea of sand area was declared as a strict Nature Reserve in 1919 for the purpose of protecting the extraordinary Sea of Sand which forms the floor of caldera with diameter 8-10 km. There are several mountains inside the caldera, namely : Mt. Bromo (2,392 m a.s.l), Mt. Batok (2,470 m a.s.l), Mt. Kursi (2,581 m a.s.l), Mt. Watangan (2,6610 m a.s.l), and Mt. Widodaren (2,650 m a.s.l).
Walking on the Sea of Sand. stepping up on the 249 steps to the rim, enjoying the unique crater in a crater,watching the dawn at Bromo are the main attractionsin the area.

PEAK OF Mt. PENANJAKAN 
From the peak of Mt. Penanjakan (2,770 m a.s.l) you will get a very good view to the area of Sea of Sand with the mount Bromo, Batok and Semeru in the background.
From the look out point at Mt. Penanjakan you can enjoy the sunrise between 4.30 a.m – 5.30 a.m while sunset is 4.30 p.m – 5.30 p.m. To watch the dawn of the day at Mt. Penanjakan you have to be ready on the spot at about 4.00 a.m.

RANU PANI, RANU REGULO, 
RANU KUMBOLO AND PEAK OF Mt. SEMERU 
Ranu pani and Ranu Regulo are two beautiful crater lakes on the upland of about 3 km beyond the southern rim of caldera. Ranu Pani/Ranu Regulo mostly passed by climbers who want to climb the Mt. Semeru. Ranu Pani about 1 Ha and Ranu Regulo about 0.75 Ha, are located nearby.
Ranu Kumbolo with about 14 Ha is located between Ranu Pani and Mt. Semeru. Walking a long the slopes of the lake Kumbolo, getting yours shoes stuck in the soft mud, smelling the fragance of pines and patches of miniature flowers, this is the idyllic solitude of the Kumbolo lake (Ranu Kumbolo).
For travelling to peak of Mt. Semeru from Ranu Pani, hikers have to take a rest at Kalimati or Arcopodo and then continue the travelling early in the morning (03.00 a.m).
On the peak of Mt. Semeru/Mahameru, hikers are adviced to avoid to visit the crater of Jonggring Saloko and southern part of the area due to the toxic gasses and lava path.

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